John L. Strother in Flora of North America (vol. 21)
rhombic-ovate to obovate, (20-)40-120(-150+) mm, faces finely pilosulous, gland-dotted.
± compressed, ± cuneate to obovate, 4-6+ mm, not notably ribbed, terminal spines 2, divergent, 3-4 mm, often 1 ± uncinate, prickles seldom notably uncinate, ± scattered.
= 22. Flowering year round, mostly Aug-Oct. Disturbed, often sandy sites; 0-100+ m; introduced; Ont.; Ala., Fla., Ga., N.J., Oreg., S.C., Va.; South America; also introduced in Mexico, West Indies, Central America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands (Hawaii).
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