Plants 10-100 cm (taproots much thickened). Stems unbranched or branched near bases. Leaves crowded near stem bases; petiolate; blades oblanceolate, rarely pinnatifid, membranous, margins usually crenate, faces velvety. Heads usually borne singly, rarely 2-3 together. Peduncles hairy (hairs whitish, matted). Involucres 15-35 mm diam. Ray corollas yellow, abaxial veins green, laminae 9-12 × 4.5-6 mm. Disc corollas yellow. Cypselae (obovate) 5-6 × 3-4 mm. 2n = 30. Flowering May-Oct. Grasslands on rolling hills, often with oak, pinyon, and juniper; 1300-2100 m; Ariz.; Mexico (Chihuahua, Sonora). Roots of Berlandiera monocephala are sold in local Mexican drugstores for stomach and lung troubles (B. L. Turner 1988d) and for insect or snake bites.